Остров проклятых. Спиналонга

Говорят, там снимали фильм «Остров проклятых» с Лео ДиКаприо. Не верьте. Доказательств этому нет. Тем не менее, остров очень интересный. Как его только не называют: остров-лечебница, царство проказы, остров слез, остров живых мертвецов. Если вы отдыхаете на Крите, Спиналонга — обязателен к посещению!

Греческий сериал «Остров», по мотивам одноименного романа Виктории Хислоп, привлек  внимание к всеми забытому островку Спиналонга. Сегодня — это самое посещаемое место на Крите после Кносса. Статистика указывает цифру: 2000 туристов в день.  Развалины древнего города Олунда, остатки венецианской крепости и мистическая история острова Спиналонги, полная человеческих страданий и жестоких боев, манит туристов со всего мира на этот небольшой клочок суши.

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От нашего отеля Malia beach до поселка Элунда доехали на машине, там пересели на кораблик. Приближаясь на катере к острову, замечаем на вершине развивающиеся черные флаги. Они производят какое-то печально-траурное впечатление. Туристов много, все шумят, строятся в очередь, приобретают билетики. Поднимаемся ко входу. Зеркальный коридор, зловещие звуки. Страшновато. На потолке висят динамики из которых доносятся эти самые вопли. Хитро придумано. В атмосферу погружает.

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Спиналонга не всегда был островом. По сведениям венецианского картографа, в 1526 году его соотечественники решили отделить часть полуострова Спиналонга и создать остров для усиления защиты порта Элунда и залива Мирабелло от постоянных пиратских набегов. Венецианцы построили крепость с 35 пушками на развалинах древнего акрополя. Тогда Кипр был уже захвачен турками, и было очевидно, что скоро придет очередь Крита. После захвата Крита в 1649 г. турками Спиналонга оставался в руках венецианцев до 1715 г. Это настоящая неприступная скала, на протяжении десятилетий охранявшая свою независимость от завоевателей.

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Мы решили экскурсию не брать, а побродить сколько нам хочется. Обратный билет оплачен без привязки ко времени. Каждые полчаса от пристани отходят катера. В какой успел, на том и плывешь.

Если вы поклонники передачи «Орел и решка», то вы помните советы, которые даются бедным туристам:) Мы всегда ими пользуемся. И в этот раз услышав русскую речь, присоединились к группе туристов, идем с ними дальше. Экскурсовод рассказывает историю острова.

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Спиналонга долго находился под контролем турок. Греки, решив прогнать турок с острова, собрали прокажённых со всей Греции и отправили их к острову. Турки, испугавшись заразы, сбежали с острова. Официально лепрозорий просуществовал здесь с 1903 по 1955 год.

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Ранее прокаженные из-за ужасающего вида заразной болезни жили, отторгнутые местным населением. В то время люди безумно боялись лепры, и прокаженные должны были носить колокольчики, чтобы здоровые могли заранее отдалиться от них. Тогда еще не было известно, что большая часть населения имеет природный иммунитет против проказы, и риск заражения был намного меньшим, чем казалось. Поэтому островок был идеальным решением для изоляции больных и для спокойствия здорового населения.

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Отстров Спиналонга находится всего в 250 м от Крита. Людей, больных проказой и заточенных на этом острове на пожизненное существование, такая близость к нормальной жизни сводила с ума. Они не доживали свой век, сбрасывались со скал вниз, о чем свидетельствует статуя безрукой женщины на верхушке скалы. Печаль, отчаяние, безнадежность, слезы –  основа жизни людей, которые здесь жили полвека назад. Кто был способен ходить и работать, возделывали огородики в южной части острова. Государство выделяло на каждого больного 200г хлеба в сутки. Основную еду они добывали себе сами – пекли, варили, выращивали, продавали, готовили. Изначально условия жизни на острове для больных были ужасные, Спиналонга представлял собой бесконечные трущобы, погрязшие в полной нищете и убожестве, кладбище с отсрочкой, без малейшей организации, без лекарств, без надежды. Многие умирали от диких болей, обезображенные и всеми забытые.

Не смотря на все трудности, эти люди не только не опустили руки, но и развили  общество со своими правилами и ценностями. Заключали браки, хотя это и было запрещено законом из-за их болезни, рожали детей – некоторые из которых появлялись на свет здоровыми. На острове также действовала Церковь Святого Пантелеймона, построенная больными. Там вел службы один смелый священник. Будучи здоровым, он добровольно вызвался разделить свою жизнь с прокаженными. Открывали кофейни, пекарни, парикмахерские, магазины для улучшения своих же условий жизни. На небольшое пособие покупали необходимые продукты на маленьком базаре, который организовывали крестьяне с Плаки у ворот острова.

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Ситуация стала изменяться в 1936 г., когда на остров прибыл больной Эпаминондас Ремундакис, студент третьего курса юридического факультета, который стал основателем «Братство Больных Спиналонги» и боролся много лет за улучшение условий проживания больных. Благодаря деятельности общества на Спиналонге были отремонтированы дома, была открыта окружная дорога, организована служба уборки улиц, был построен театр, а из динамиков на улицах лилась классическая музыка. Так жизнь прокаженных стала напоминать что-то близкое к жизни нормальных людей за пределами этого острова. Даже электричество на Крите впервые появилось именно здесь.

В 1948 г. в Америке было открыто лекарство, лечащее вирус лепры.  В 50-х годах прошлого века вакцина добралась и до «острова проклятых». Всех вылечили, а остров превратили в музей и сделали посещаемым для туристов.

В наши дни Спиналонга признан археологическим памятником, некоторые здания реставрируются. Его посещают более 300 000 человек в год, что возводит его в первую пятерку византийских  археологических достопримечательностей Греции.

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Честно говоря, в полное исцеление и абсолютную стерильность верилось плохо. Мы усиленно терли руки антбактериальными салфетками и брызгались спреем «стоп-инфекция», предусмотрительно взятым из дома:)

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В принципе, остров небольшой. Если вы бродите по нему без экскурсии, поднимитесь наверх, к черным флагам. Оттуда открывается изумительный панорамный вид на Крит. Что еще делать на острове? Устройте фотосессию. Выпуклые каменный стены оттенка охры — отличный фон для летних снимков.

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Спиналонга будоражит своей темной историей не только туристов, но и деятелей культуры. Начиная с середины 50-х годов об этом печальном острове начинают снимать фильмы. «Letzte Worte», «Остров молчания», «L’Ordre» — эти картины заставляют задуматься о жизни людей на этом острове, дергают за струны души и как следствие эмоционально переданной истории, удостаиваются премий международных фестивалей.

Спиналонга — остров, которые не оставит вас равнодушным.

Также по теме: Рыбаки и лодки. Крит   Пляж Ваи — Баунти beach   Таверна No stress   Морской аквариум   50 оттенков синего. Бухта Мирабелло   прокат авто на о.Крит

 

 

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